Sierra Leone in top five ‘most improved’ in 2013 Ibrahim Index of African Governance

Sierra Leone is one of five countries to lead the table of biggest governance improvers, and has seen notable improvements in Safety & Rule of Law The 2013 Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG), released today, reveals that governance in Sierra Leone has improved significantly since 2000. Sierra Leone has made the list of the IIAG’s top five ‘most improved’ countries since 2000 along with Liberia, Angola, Rwanda and Burundi—all of which are post-conflict countries. Overall, Sierra Leone ranks 31st out of 52 African countries in the 2013 IIAG. The 2013 IIAG provides full details of Sierra Leone’s performance across four categories of governance: Safety & Rule of Law, Participation & Human Rights, Sustainable Economic Opportunity and Human Development. Since 2000, Sierra Leone has shown its biggest improvement in the category of Safety & Rule of Law (a category in which many other African countries have seen recent deteriorations). Safety & Rule of Law measures judicial functions, accountability, transparency and corruption, property rights, personal safety and national security, among others. The 2013 IIAG shows that 94% of Africans – including those in Sierra Leone – live in a country that has experienced overall governance improvement since 2000. The 6% of people living in a country that has experienced governance deterioration since 2000 are based in Madagascar, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Somalia, Libya and Mali. Despite vast improvements since 2000, Sierra Leone’s governance score remains below the continental average for Africa as well as the regional average for West Africa. Sierra Leone’s performance in the 2013 IIAG: Ranks 31st (out of 52) overall Scores 48.0 (out of 100), lower than the African average (51.6) Has improved by +14.8 since 2000 Ranks 11th (out of 16) in the West African region Scores lower than the regional average for West Africa (52.5) Ranks its highest in the category Participation & Human Rights (22nd out of 52) Ranks its lowest in the category Human Development (48th out of 52) Ranks its highest in the sub-category Rights (14th out of 52) and ranks its lowest in the sub-category Health (49th out of 52) Sierra Leone’s category and sub-category scores: Category / Sub-Category Rank (out of 52) Change in Rank since 2000 Score (100 = highest) Change in Score since 2000 Overall 31 +14 48.0 +14.8 Safety & Rule of Law 23 +26 55.0 +29.5 Rule of Law 27 +21 48.2 +30.1 Accountability 26 +16 40.4 +16.4 Personal Safety 24 +17 45.2 +4.0 National Security 20 +32 86.0 +67.7 Participation & Human Rights 22 0 53.4 +5.4 Participation 19 +1 57.7 +5.2 Rights 14 +4 57.3 +1.3 Gender 36 +10 45.2 +9.7 Sustainable Economic Opportunity 35 +7 41.8 +14.4 Public Management 39 -4 48.8 +3.8 Business Environment 32 +13 46.0 +18.8 Infrastructure 42 +2 17.8 +8.0 Rural Sector 26 +16 54.6 +27.0 Human Development 48 -1 42.0 +9.8 Welfare 42 0 40.3 +5.7 Education 45 -12 37.4 -0.0 Health 49 +3 48.3 +23.6 West Africa’s performance in the 2013 IIAG: West Africa ranks 3rd out of five regions at the overall governance level. This has been the case every year since 2000, except in 2011 when it ranked 2nd Seven out of the 16 countries in West Africa score above the continental average (51.6) Three West African countries (Cape Verde, Ghana, Senegal) rank in the top ten in 2012. Two countries (Côte d’Ivoire and Guinea-Bissau) rank in the bottom ten West Africa’s overall score has increased by +5.6 since 2000. The region has shown improvements in all four categories since 2000: Safety & Rule of Law (+0.8), Participation & Human Rights (+3.1), Sustainable Economic Opportunity (+6.1) and Human Development (+12.2) West Africa and Central Africa are the only regions to have shown improvements across all four categories since 2000 West Africa achieved its highest score since 2000 in 2011. It has experienced two periods of decline: 2002-2003 and 2011-2012 Cape Verde is the highest-ranking country in the region, ranking 3rd (out of 52) overall and scoring 76.7 Guinea-Bissau is the lowest-ranking country in the region, ranking 46th (out of 52) overall and scoring 37.1 Global results The seventh Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG), released today, confirms that overall governance continues to improve at the continental level. The countries that have experienced overall governance improvement since 2000 are today home to 94% of people living on the continent. Since 2000, the strongest improvements at continental level are registered in the categories of Human Development, Sustainable Economic Opportunity and, to a lesser extent, Participation & Human Rights. Meanwhile the Safety & Rule of Law category has declined worryingly, showing year-on-year declines since 2010. The IIAG shows a growing diversity in governance results on the continent. There is a widening span in performance between the best and worst governed countries; increasingly noticeable differences between the performance across different categories; and conflicting trends within the categories. Chair of the Mo Ibrahim Foundation said: “Neither Afro-pessimism nor Afro-optimism does justice to modern Africa. This is now the age of Afro-realism – an honest outlook on our continent. It’s about a celebration of its achievements but also a pragmatic acknowledgement of the challenges that lie ahead.” Diverging results in the Safety & Rule of Law category The Safety & Rule of Law category has shown diverging trends between its sub-categories. While the National Security sub-category continues to show progress, with Cross-Border Tensions being the largest improving indicator, the Personal Safety sub-category has seen concerning declines, with four of the five indicators sitting in the ten most deteriorated indicator group. Personal Safety has also shown the largest sub-category level deterioration since 2000. While the Accountability sub-category has improved slightly since 2000, especially in the Corruption & Bureaucracy indicator, the Rule of Law sub-category has declined. “In this continent, where two thirds of the population is now under 25, these diverging trends within the Safety & Rule of Law category are concerning. They may sound a warning signal, with the new century seeing fewer regional conflicts but increased domestic social unrest,” said Hadeel Ibrahim, Founding Executive Director of the Mo Ibrahim Foundation. Complexity underpins the IIAG scores The 2013 IIAG reflects the growing complexity of the African landscape. The challenge is how to secure sustainable progress. More than ever, equitable allocation of resources must be a priority for policy and decision making. Commitment to, and balance in each of the four IIAG categories–Safety & Rule of Law, Participation & Human Rights, Sustainable Economic Opportunity and Human Development, is critical to secure improvement in the long-term. The continental average of 51.6 for overall governance conceals the widening span in performance between the African countries, with the top performing country, Mauritius, scoring 82.9 while Somalia, the poorest performing country, registers the lowest country score at 8.0. Between 2000 and 2012, the range of scores between the best and worst performers, at the overall governance level as well as at a category level, has widened. This is most evident in the Sustainable Economic Opportunity category. Salim Ahmed Salim, Chairperson of the Ibrahim Prize Committee said: “The widening range of the governance results, especially within some sub-regions, stresses the growing need for more cohesion and solidarity. This will be critical to African unity.” Specific Dynamics Success stories Five post-conflict countries – Liberia, Angola, Sierra Leone, Rwanda and Burundi – top the league of the table for most improved performers since 2000. Two countries, Angola and Rwanda, have, remarkably, shown year-on-year improvement in overall governance, coming from their lowest point in 2000 and reaching their highest peak yet in 2012. However, both of these countries have room for continued improvement, with Rwanda ranking 15th in overall governance, and Angola ranking 39th (out of 52 countries). At country level The top ten performers over the years have remained relatively stable, with eight countries managing to remain in this grouping since 2000 (Mauritius, Botswana, Cape Verde, South Africa, Seychelles, Namibia, Tunisia and Ghana). Meanwhile, the bottom ten have displayed more fluctuation in and out of the grouping. Six countries (Zimbabwe, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Central African Republic, DRC and Somalia) have constantly remained in the bottom ten in all years between 2000 and 2012. Since 2000, seven countries have managed to pull themselves out of the bottom ten, four of which are post-conflict countries (Angola, Burundi, Liberia and Sierra Leone). At sub-category level Since 2000, 11 out of the 14 sub-categories have shown improvement: Accountability, National Security, Participation, Gender, Public Management, Business Environment, Infrastructure, Rural Sector, Welfare, Education, and Health. Meanwhile notable deterioration has been registered in the Rule of Law, Personal Safety, and Rights sub-categories. At indicator level Since 2000, of the 94 indicators included in the IIAG, the ten most improved are Antiretroviral Treatment Provision, Ratio of External Debt Service to Exports, Digital Connectivity, Core International Human Rights Conventions, Cross-Border Tensions, Legislation on Violence Against Women, Immunisation (Measles & DPT), Women in Parliament, Primary School Completion and Child Mortality. The ten most deteriorated indicators are Human Rights, Freedom of Expression, Violent Crime, Social Unrest, Human Trafficking, Domestic Armed Conflict, Transfers of Power, Soundness of Banks, Safety of the Person and Workers’ Rights

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